Methodology for Participatory Assesment

DSC02243MPA adalah akronim dari Methodlogy Participatory Assesment. MPA adalah salah satu metode partisipatif yang banyak digunakan untuk terutama untuk mengidentifikasi kebutuhan, membuat mapping kondisi masyarakat serta menganalisa kemampuan masyarakat guna perencanaan kesinambungan sebuah program yang dijalankan. MPA lazimnya digunakan dalam program yang berkaitan dengan air bersih dan sanitasi.
 
Selain Metode Future Search dan beberapa metode lainnya, MPA adalah salah satu metode yang kerap digunakan oleh Yayasan Dian Desa dalam berbagai program yang dijalankan. Kadang, kami mengadaptasikan beberapa metode yang berbeda dalam satu proses. Ketika menjalankan metode partisipatif di masyarakat, ada beberapa ‘step’ yang kadang tidak bisa dijalankan karena dinamika lapangan yang berbeda-beda. Di saat itulah maka kami mengadaptasikan beberapa langkah metode yang lain untuk ‘menambal’ celah dari metode yang sedang digunakan.
 
Kembali ke topik MPA. MPA merupakan sebuah metodologi yang bersifat partisipatif, menggunakan pendekatan  Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) dan Self esteem, Associate strength, Resourcefulness, Action Planning, Responsibility (SARAR). Metodologi ini mengungkapkan cara-cara kaum perempuan dan keluarga kurang mampu berpartisipasi dan mengambil manfaat atas suatu sarana bersama-sama kaum lelaki dan keluarga berada. Selain itu, dalam metode ini diperlihatkan juga faktor-faktor kunci menuju keberhasilan dalam suatu proyek air bersih dan sanitasi yang dikelola masyarakat.IMG_2250
 
✓ MPA ditujukan kepada pelaksana maupun masyarakat untuk mencapai sarana yang dikelola secara berkesinambungan dan digunakan secara efektif
✓ MPA dirancang melibatkan semua stakeholder utama dan menganalisis keberadaan empat komponen penting masyarakat : lelaki miskin, perempuan miskin, lelaki kaya, dan perempuan kaya. Jadi, MPA mengoperasionalkan kerangka analisis gender dan kemiskinan untuk menaksir kesinambungan sarana air bersih dan sanitasi.
✓ MPA menggunakan satu set indikator yang sector specific untuk mengukur kesinambungan sarana air bersih dan sanitasi.
✓ MPA menghasilkan sejumlah data kualitatif tingkat desa, sebagian darinya dapat dikuantitatifkan yang dapat dianalisis secara statistik.
Dengan cara tersebut, kita dapat menganalisis antar masyarakat, antar proyek, antar waktu, serta pada tingkat program. Dengan demikian, MPA dapat menghasilkan informasi manajemen untuk proyek skala besar dan data sesuai untuk analisis program.
 
Methodology for Participatory Assesment menggunakan beberapa tools/steps, yaitu:
 
1. Wealth Classification: To classify the village population into economic categories on the basis of locally specific criteria and using culturally appropriate terms. These classification will be used to identify groups with which to hold focus group discussion for mapping the access of the poor and rich to water supply and sanitation facilities, functions, and jobs, and identifying their differential rates of participation in community decision making, management of service, benefits, and so forth.
2. Community Mapping: To learn about the community’s situation regarding all water supply and sanitation facilities ad access of the poor, rich, and middle-income households to them
3. Review of Service Management.
4. Managemen and Decision Making: A.To assess the authority and composition of the management organization, including gender and poverty in representation and influence. B.To assess the performance of the organization, including concerning gender and poverty perspectives. C.To triangulate earlier information (social map) and understand problems.
5. History of Participation in Service Establishment: A.To assess and analyze the composition and influence of the community management, including gender and poverty in representation and control. B.To assess and analyze the system, equity, and transparency of user contribution to the installation of the service.
6. Training assessment – access and use: A.To assess and analyze who in the community was trained, including access for women and poor. B.To assess and analyze what skill fields were covered and not covered (training/capacity building gaps). C.To assess and analyze how innovative the training was on gender: were women and men both trained in new skills (highest score), did women receive innovative training (2nd highest score) or was training only to men or strictly according to conventional gender patterns in the division of tasks and skills. D.To find out if training is used and if not, by whom and for what reasons.
7. Gender division of tasks and time (ladder 2): To assess and analyze how equitable workload, type of work (agreeable/non-agreeable) and paid/unpaid work are divided between men and women and rich and poor.
8. Financial Management: A.To assess and analyze the degree to which the community covers the costs of its water service. B.To assess and analyze the equity and transparency of the payment system and its implications for control over service. C.To assess and analyze the system, equity and transparency of user contributions to service operations.
9. Transect Walk: A.To cross check information on the map made by the population. B.To determine to what extent a well built, maintained and managed water supply and/or sanitation is present in the community. C.To assess the degree of satisfaction of the users towards the WSS facilities through work rating and service rating scale. D.For the un-served population assess the number of HH who are not served by the water supply, the types of HH affected (poor, middle or rich) and the reasons for their not being served and also assess and analyze if, and what types of, affected HH have safe alternatives.
10. Effective use (Pocket voting for water supply service and sanitation): A.To identify and analyze the changes toward safe water use, excreta disposal by sex and age group and in different circumstances and seasons. B.To assess the scope of change. C.To identify reasons why such changes have not/not always occurred.
11. Benefits, demands and value for cost (ladder 1): A.To identify and analyze the demands and practical and strategic benefits that women and men in different welfare groups perceive and support the service for: ( A water service in the economic sense meets demands for water against payment but users may contribute also for other reasons, such as saving time, health and hygiene, sense of ownership and pride. B.To assess and analyze the different perceptions of women and men, rich and poor.
12. Division of contribution between households: A.To asses and analyze the nature of user contributions to meet demand (other than time for the meeting, which also has monetary value, but is hard to assess in recall situation. B.To assess and analyze division of contribution within the community and within households (who pays and in what form(s) for establishment of services and relate this to capacity to contribute and ensuing benefits and control.
13. Voice and Choice in Decision Making: A.To identify and analyze access to information, including women and poor. B.To assess the participation, gender, and poverty aspects in decision making, and the scope of decision making process and in access to information needed for participation in decision-making.
14. Contamination Route.
15. Three Pile Sorting.
16. Community Review Assembly: A.To share outcomes of the process to the community of all the dusuns (sub-villages) and discuss findings and follow-up. B.To present the sequence as a whole and bring out interrelations between various factors, e.g. access and payment, welfare and payment, participation of women and poor in decision making and quality of works and service, etc. C.To start discussion on plan to improve the situation related to Water supply and sanitation facilities.
 
Berikut beberapa foto kegiatan MPA yang dilakukan Yayasan Dian Desa di berbagai tempat/program dengan beberapa lembaga yang berbeda (Waterfinns Finland, Plan International, CRS-Catholic Relief Service).
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